Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention
Cholera is a sudden onset of acute bacterial bowel disease. If the infection is serious and has not been treated in time, the patient can die within a few hours.
The mortality rate can exceed 50%. However, It’s possible to reduce 100% One or less, if appropriate treatment is giving by the medical practitioner.
Vibrio Cholarae, which produces enterotoxin, is divided into two biotypes – cholera classical and ElTor, and each biotype includes two serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa.
Because the secreted enterotoxin is similar, the clinical signs are similar. In addition to the Bangladesh region, the ElTor type is popular.
Since the 19th century, cholera has caused many world pandemics. In many Asian Countries, still, cholera bacteria are not controlling fully.
The serotype was discovered by An American Microbiologist, which was quickly spread throughout the country after being discovered in India in 1992 and was also prevalent in Bangladesh.
In addition, Thailand, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia, and other countries have also issued the new bacteria; and in the United States, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, and other countries have also found cases of overseas migration.
Cholera – Infection
Humans are transmitting bacteria In recent years, observations in the United States and Australia have shown that contaminated environments can also be a breeding ground for cholera.
Vibrio cholera can be present in sewage for a considerable period of time. The main route of infection is the stool or vomit of the patient or carrier,
contaminating drinking water or food, such as raw food caught in the contaminated sea of Vibrio cholerae seafood.
Cholera – Symptoms
The symptoms caused by O139 bacteria are heavier and have abdominal pain, and most of the patients are adults.
Only mild Diarrhea is Especially in children only is major symptoms when the E1Tor biotype is infecting.
Cholera – Diagnosis
Vibrio-producing Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 can be isolated from stool or vomit samples.
During the acute phase and during recovery, antibodies to Vibrio cholera or against its toxicity are significantly elevated in human serum.
Treated patients or those
Always treatment with isolation when the onset of disease. Severe patients should start the examination of feces after receiving three days of treatment.
The most important step in treatment is to replenish enough electrolyte fluid to correct Dehydration, Acidosis, and Hypokalemia. Oral electrolyte liquid can replenish within 4 to 6 hours when lost.
Cholera – Therapeutic drugs
- sulfamethoxazole Trimethoprim
- CChloramphenicolor Erythromycin Antibiotics, as well as Chlorpromazine and Atropine, can shorten diarrhea and bacilli time, but children under the age of eight should be avoided.
Food treatment should be hygienic. If there is any doubt about local food, you should choose hot food. Eat lots of Fruit on daily routine especially peeled fruits.
Before consumption, Cook Shellfish and seafood are at least 10 minutes; wash hands frequently, especially after going to the toilet; indoors should have anti-flies screens and insecticides.
The patient’s bed sheets, stool, vomit, and other related items keep clean and disinfectant to avoid infection to other members of the family, especially children.
In addition, everyone in the patient’s home and in the tour group, who use the same water source, kitchen, restaurant, or toilet as the patient, must take drugs to prevent infection.
Three to five days after taking the drug, the stool test is negative before stopping the drug.
After infection, several antibodies in the body increase, including Vibrio antibodies, anti-toxin antibodies, and agglutinating antibodies, which are resistant to reinfection,
especially for longer-lasting bacteria of the same type. In areas where cholera is prevalent;
most people have acquired antibodies in early adulthood. Existing vaccines are not effective in controlling epidemics and treating contacts,
in high-endemic areas, vaccine protection is only about 50% and only lasts for three to six months.
The current cholera vaccine has no preventive effect on O139 bacteria.
use regularly boiled water for your family to protect including Drinking, Making ice, Preparing drinks and foods, washing face and hands.